Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

NOTE 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies


Unaudited Interim Financial Information


The accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet as of September 30, 2022, and the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss and cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021 are unaudited. The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the annual consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary to present fairly the Company’s financial position as of September 30, 2022 and the results of operations and cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021. The financial data and other information disclosed in these notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements related to these six-month periods are unaudited. The results of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2022 or for any other interim period or other future year.


Principle of Consolidation


Aerkomm consolidates the accounts of its subsidiaries, Aircom, Aircom Seychelles, Aircom HK, Aircom Japan, Aircom Taiwan, Aerkomm Taiwan, Beijing Yatai, Aerkomm Malta, and MEPA Labs. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.


Reclassifications of Prior Year Presentation


Certain prior year balance sheet, and cash flow statement amounts have been reclassified for consistency with the current year presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported results of operations.


Use of Estimates


The preparation of unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results may differ from these estimates. On an ongoing basis, management reviews these estimates and assumptions using the currently available information. Changes in facts and circumstances may cause the Company to revise its estimates. The Company bases its estimates on past experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities. The inputs into our judgments and estimates consider the economic implications of COVID-19 on the Company’s critical and significant accounting estimates. Estimates are used when accounting for items and matters including, but not limited to, revenue recognition, residual values, lease classification and liabilities, finance lease receivables, inventory obsolescence, right-of-use assets, determinations of the useful lives and valuation of long-lived assets, estimates of allowances for doubtful accounts and prepayments, estimates of impairment of long-lived assets, valuation of deferred tax assets, issuance of common stock and warrants exercised and other provisions and contingencies.


Concentrations of Credit Risk


Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash in banks. As of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the total balance of cash in bank exceeding the amount insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) for the Company was $2,134,000 and $0, respectively. The balance of cash deposited in foreign financial institutions exceeding the amount insured by local insurance is approximately $3,265,000 and $3,106,000 as of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.


The Company performs ongoing credit evaluation of its customers and requires no collateral. An allowance for doubtful accounts is provided based on a review of the collectability of accounts receivable. The Company determines the amount of allowance for doubtful accounts by examining its historical collection experience and current trends in the credit quality of its customers as well as its internal credit policies. Actual credit losses may differ from management’s estimates.


Investment in Equity Securities


According to FASB issued Accounting Standards Updates 2016-01 (ASU 2016-01), it requires equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value being recorded in current period earnings, impacting the net income. For the investments in equity securities without readily determinable fair values, the investments may be recorded at cost, subject to impairment, and adjusted through net income for observable price changes.


Holdings of marketable equity securities with no significant influence over the investee are accounted for using cost method. Marketable equity security costs are initially recognized at fair value plus transaction costs which are directly attributable to the acquisition. The cost of the securities sold is based on the weighted average cost method. Stock dividends from the investment are included to recalculate the cost basis of the investment based on the total number of shares.


Accounts receivable


Accounts receivables are carried at the amounts invoiced to customers less allowance for doubtful accounts. The allowance is an estimate based on a review of individual customer accounts on a quarterly basis. Accounts receivables are written off against allowances when they are deemed uncollectible. Recoveries of accounts receivable previously written off are recorded as other income when received.


The Company’s review on the collectability of accounts receivable is based on an assessment of historical experience, current economic conditions, future expectation regarding customer solvency, and other collection indicators.




Inventories are recorded at the lower of weighted-average cost or net realizable value. The Company assesses the impact of changing technology on its inventory on hand and writes off inventories that are considered obsolete. Estimated losses on scrap and slow-moving items are recognized in the allowance for losses.


Property and Equipment


Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. When value impairment is determined, the related assets are stated at the lower of fair value or book value. Significant additions, renewals and betterments are capitalized. Maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred.


Depreciation is computed by using the straight-line and double declining methods over the following estimated service lives: ground station equipment – 5 years, computer equipment - 3 to 5 years, furniture and fixtures - 5 years, satellite equipment – 5 years, vehicles – 5 to 6 years and lease improvement – 5 years or remaining lease term, whichever is shorter.


Upon sale or disposal of property and equipment, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the corresponding accounts, with any gain or loss credited or charged to income in the period of sale or disposal.


The Company reviews the carrying amount of property and equipment for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. It determined that there was no impairment loss for the nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021.


Right-of-Use Asset and Lease Liability


In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases” (Topic 842) (“ASU 2016-02”), which modifies lease accounting for both lessees and lessors to increase transparency and comparability by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities by lessees for those leases classified as operating leases and finance leases under previous accounting standards and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements.


A lessee should recognize the lease liability to make lease payments and the right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. For operating leases and finance leases, a right-of-use asset and a lease liability are initially measured at the present value of the lease payments by discount rates. The Company’s lease discount rates are generally based on its incremental borrowing rate, as the discount rates implicit in the Company’s leases is readily determinable. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use assets and lease liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets. Finance leases are included in property and equipment and lease liability in our consolidated balance sheets. Lease expense for operating expense payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Interest and amortization expenses are recognized for finance leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term.


For the leases with a term of twelve months or less, a lessee is permitted to make an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities. If a lessee makes this election, it should recognize lease expense for such leases generally on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company adopted ASU 2016-02 effective January 1, 2019.


Goodwill and Purchased Intangible Assets


The Company’s goodwill represents the amount by which the total purchase price paid exceeded the estimated fair value of net assets acquired from acquisition of subsidiaries. The Company tests goodwill for impairment on an annual basis, or more often if events or circumstances indicate that there may be impairment.


Purchased intangible assets with finite life are amortized on the straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of respective assets. Purchased intangible assets with indefinite life are evaluated for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. Purchased intangible asset consists of satellite system software and is amortized over 10 years.


Fair Value of Financial Instruments


The Company utilizes the three-level valuation hierarchy for the recognition and disclosure of fair value measurements. The categorization of assets and liabilities within this hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the measurement of fair value. The three levels of the hierarchy consist of the following:


Level 1 - Inputs to the valuation methodology are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date.


Level 2 - Inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices in markets that are not active or inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the instrument.


Level 3 - Inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable inputs based upon management’s best estimate of inputs market participants could use in pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date, including assumptions.


The carrying amounts of the Company’s cash and restricted cash, short-term investment, accounts receivable, inventory, prepaid expenses, other receivable, accounts payable, short-term loan, accrued expenses and other payable approximated their fair value due to the short-term nature of these financial instruments. The Company’s long-term bonds payable, long-term loan and lease payable approximated the carrying amount as its interest rate is considered as approximate to the current rate for comparable loans and leases, respectively. There were no outstanding derivative financial instruments as of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021.


Revenue Recognition


The Company recognizes revenue when performance obligations identified under the terms of contracts with its customers are satisfied, which generally occurs upon the transfer of control in accordance with the contractual terms and conditions of the sale. The Company’s revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021 composed of the sales of ground antenna units to a related party and sales of network hardware to a non-related party. The majority of the Company’s revenue is recognized at a point in time when product is shipped or service is provided to the customer. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring goods, which includes estimates for variable consideration. The Company adopted the provisions of ASU 2014-09 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) and the principal versus agent guidance within the new revenue standard. As such, the Company identifies a contract with a customer, identifies the performance obligations in the contract, determines the transaction price, allocates the transaction price to each performance obligation in the contract and recognizes revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies a performance obligation. Customers may make payments to the Company either in advance or in arrears. If payment is made in advance, the Company will recognize a contract liability under prepayments from customers until which point the Company has satisfied the requisite performance obligations to recognize revenue.


Stock-based Compensation


The Company adopted the modified prospective method to measure stock-based compensation expense. Under the modified prospective method, stock-based compensation expense recognized during the period is based on the portion of the share-based payment awards granted after the effective date and ultimately expected to vest during the period. Stock-based compensation expense recognized in the Company’s statement of income is based on the vesting terms and the estimated fair value of the award at grant date. As stock-based compensation expense recognized in the statement of income is based on awards ultimately expected to vest, it is reduced for estimated forfeiture. Forfeitures are estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates.


The Company uses the Black-Scholes option pricing model in its determination of fair value of share-based payment awards on the date of grant. Such option pricing model is affected by assumptions based on a number of highly complex and subjective variables.


Income Taxes


Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are computed for differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities that will result in taxable or deductible amounts in the future based on enacted tax laws and rates applicable to the periods in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. Income tax expense is the tax payable or refundable for the period plus or minus the change during the period in deferred tax assets and liabilities. Adjustments to prior period’s income tax liabilities are added to or deducted from the current period’s tax provision.


The Company follows FASB guidance on uncertain tax positions and has analyzed its filing positions in all the federal, state and foreign jurisdictions where it is required to file income tax returns, as well as all open tax years in those jurisdictions. The Company files income tax returns in the US federal, state and foreign jurisdictions where it conducts business. It is not subject to income tax examinations by US federal, state and local tax authorities for years before 2017. The Company believes that its income tax filing positions and deductions will be sustained on audit and does not anticipate any adjustments that will result in a material adverse effect on its consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. Therefore, no reserves for uncertain tax positions have been recorded. The Company does not expect its unrecognized tax benefits to change significantly over the next twelve months.


The Company’s policy for recording interest and penalties associated with any uncertain tax positions is to record such items as a component of income before taxes. Penalties and interest paid or received, if any, are recorded as part of other operating expenses in the consolidated statement of operations.


Foreign Currency Transactions


Foreign currency transactions are recorded in U.S. dollars at the exchange rates in effect when the transactions occur. Exchange gains or losses derived from foreign currency transactions or monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognized in current income. At the end of each period, assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are revalued at the prevailing exchange rates with the resulting gains or losses recognized in income for the period.


Translation Adjustments


If a foreign subsidiary’s functional currency is the local currency, translation adjustments will result from the process of translating the subsidiary’s financial statements into the reporting currency of the Company. Such adjustments are accumulated and reported under other comprehensive income (loss) as a separate component of stockholders’ equity.


Loss Per Share


Basic loss per share is computed by dividing income available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing income available to common shareholders by the weighted-average number of shares of common outstanding during the period increased to include the number of additional shares of common stock that would have been outstanding if the potentially dilutive securities had been issued. Potentially dilutive securities include stock warrants and outstanding stock options, shares to be purchased by employees under the Company’s employee stock purchase plan. The Company had 1,943,618 and 1,218,698 common stock equivalents, primarily stock options and warrants, as of September 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively. For the nine months periods ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, the assumed exercise of the Company’s common stock equivalents were not included in the calculation as the effect would be anti-dilutive.